Wednesday, April 28, 2021

Vocal Phonation Modes for the Brass Player


Singers have a well-codified system of vocal phonation modes that may parallel sound production for the brass player. Study of these modes may help brass players produce sounds that are more resonant and more colorful.


Brass players and singers have much in common. For both groups, an actual part of the human body produces the sound. For the brass player, it is the lips; for the singer, the vocal cords. In both cases, flesh is activated by the flow of air, and the faster the oscillation of that tissue, the higher the pitch. In both cases, the diaphragm, thoracic, and abdominal muscles modify the respiratory system's natural process. The sound of a singer's vocal cords vibrating prior to passing through the oral cavity sounds quite a bit like a brass player buzzing their mouthpiece. (Steenstrup, 18)

Singers have a long and robust tradition in exploring the science of sound production, a tradition that in some ways is superior to what we know about sound production in brass instruments. For today's blog article, I would like to focus on some basic ideas of vocal sound production, and how they might inform our thoughts about brass playing. In particular, I would like for brass players to explore how they may be able to develop and explore new tone colors, in a similar manner to how singers do this with vocal phonation modes.

For starters, four principles regarding sound production for singers should be noted:

 1. The vocal cords are a singer's reed, and they consist of the thyroarytenoid muscle and a membrane that covers it.

2. Adduction is the "closing" movement of the vocal folds, coming together.

3. Abduction is the "opening" movement of the vocal folds, separating apart.

4. The sound quality (timbre) is largely derived from the balance of opening and closing phases.  If the closing phase is longer than the opening phase, the sound will be brighter (richer in upper harmonics). If the opening phase is longer than the closing phase, the sound will be darker (lacking in upper harmonics). (For a more in-depth explanation of harmonics and tone color, check out the video I made last year on this subject.)

Process of Phonation

The phonation process involves the opening and closing phases of the vocal cords in response to the air, in a manner quite similar to that of the brass player’s lips. Since I am not a singer, allow me to directly reference a well-respected vocal pedagogy source: Agostoni writes:

“During the expiration the vocal cords are drawn together by the adductor muscles; the subglottic pressure pushes them apart, while their elastic recoil and the decrease of the lateral pressure due to the increase in kinetic pressure (Bernoulli principle) close them again, thus generating a periodic flow.” (Agostini, 105106)

Types of Phonation

Vocal phonation is the process by which the vocal folds produce sound. Vocal pedagogues know that the timbre of a singer’s voice is determined by the type of phonation they employ. In the standard voice pedagogy textbook, The Science of the Singing Voice (1987), Johan Sundberg introduced four types of phonation: breathy, pressed, flow, and neutral. Since that time, other modes have been described, such as creak phonation and falsetto phonation.

Breathy Phonation

Breathy phonation is when there is a higher airflow (and according to Boyle’s law, inversely, lower air pressure)  and a low adduction force. A great deal of air passing between the vocal folds that are held together by a smaller adduction force means that the vocal folds likely do not come completely together. This causes air to pass over the vocal folds that is not used for vibration, but rather, is heard as noise. Therefore, the unvibrated “noise” is perceptible in the sound quality, leading to a “breathy” timbre. This timbre of breathing phonation has a lower intensity of the upper harmonics.

Substituting "lips" for "vocal cords," and keeping the air in common, we can conjecture a brass playing equivalent of breathy phonation. Indeed, brass players get an airy sound, lacking in upper harmonics, when lips do not come completely together. Said another way, an airy sound may be the result of a lack of muscular contraction of the lip muscles and/or an aperture that is too large.

My friend and former University of Kentucky trumpet professor Vince DiMartino sometimes uses the term "blow-by" to describe this phenomenon for trumpet players -- Air that passes between the lips unvibrated and is heard as noise. It would seem to me that the “DiMartino Blow-by” and traditional vocal breathy phonation have much in common.

Pressed Phonation

Another vocal phonation mode is pressed phonation. If the vocal cords are pressed together with a high adduction force, combined with a higher air pressure, the closing phase is longer than the opening phase, which would result in a stronger intensity of the upper harmonics, which may be perceived as a "strident" or "bright" sound.

The brass playing equivalent of pressed phonation could be considered to be the strident sound, strong in upper harmonics, that results from the combination of lips that are pressed very tightly together, with high air pressure.

Flow Phonation (also called Resonant Phonation)

Flow phonation is the most resonant method of vocal phonation. Characteristics of flow phonation include high airflow, and a high but balanced subglottal pressure. Flow phonation is the most desirable method of singing and results in a balanced spectrum of harmonics.

The brass playing equivalent to flow phonation could be when airflow and lips are working together, perfectly in balance, to produce the most resonant sound quality.

Other Modes of Phonation

Vocal pedagogues also describe other modes of vocal phonation. Creak phonation is when there is a strong adduction force but at a very low frequency; this is the result of irregular oscillation. This is also known as “vocal fry.” Falsetto phonation is where the vocal folds are stretched and the vibrating surface is quite thin; this results in much higher pitches. (I’m not sure if there would be a direct equivalent of this phonation for brass players, but it sure would be nice if there was a quick way to pop up the octave!)

Changing Colors

While “flow phonation” may be the most ideal method for producing a resonant sound, singers may intentionally use other modes of phonation to change their vocal color, for expressive purposes. A singer may use breathy phonation for a breathy, intimate timbre. A singer may use a pressed phonation to achieve a tense, strident sound to convey anger.

Similarly, while brass players should also strive for physical efficiency and their most resonant sound production, they should also explore methods for producing a variety of tone colors. Changes in airflow, air pressure, and adduction force can also yield changes in a brass player’s timbre. For example, a jazz trumpet player may purposely allow some air to enter their sound to obtain a more diffused timbre. Conversely, a brass player may press their lips together with a high adduction force in order to create more upper harmonics in their timbre.

Changing to Stay The Same

Another important thing brass players can learn from singers is the importance of changing to stay the same. Since the amount of air remaining in the lungs is constantly decreasing over the course of a musical phrase, the relationship between airflow and the vocal cord tension is constantly changing. Agostini writes,

“To produce a pitch of constant loudness and pitch the subglottic pressure must increase, while the vocal cord tension must decrease in order to keep the pitch constant.”

For brass players, a takeaway is that maintaining a note of the same volume and pitch is not a static process, but rather one in which we must change in order to stay the same.

Focus on the Music, Not on the Muscles

One conclusion that could be drawn from this information is that more focus should be put on the musician's specific control of their musculature -- but nothing could be further from the truth. Singers should not attempt to directly and mechanically control the stiffness and tension of their vocal cords. In the same book that codifies vocal phonation modes, Sundberg writes,

"We do not need to bother about the extremely complicated maneuvers we perform. We just perform them unconsciously, and what catches our attention is the end result, the sound." (Sundberg, The Science of Singing Voice, 18)

In a similar way, brass musicians need not worry about the specific musculature involved when they are performing. Rather, this information can be used as a diagnostic tool to address and correct problems.

Good Playing is Easy

My teacher Keith Johnson would often say, “Good playing is easy,” and I believe the singer’s concept of flow phonation reinforces this notion. Since vocal flow phonation is achieved through less contraction of the laryngeal muscles and less air pressure, it could also be described as the type of sound production that requires the least physical effort. Said another way, the most resonant sound quality may best be achieved through a method that is also the easiest from a physiological and aerodynamic basis.

For Future Researchers

While these phonation modes have been well researched by vocal pedagogues, more work is needed in the area of brass pedagogy. I believe there are many parallels between singing and trumpet playing, and this is a golden opportunity for future researchers. Ambitious and creative doctoral students who may be reading this blog may find this an area not yet adequately explored by brass researchers, and quite possibly a great topic for future dissertation and scholarly article work.

The author would like to extend a special thank you to Dr. Elizabeth Arnold, Associate Professor of Voice in the University of Kentucky School of Music, for her contribution to and feedback on this article. 

Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).

Sources/For Future Research

If you'd like to take a look at what vocal cords look like "in action," check out this YouTube video:

Modes of Phonation Website:

Types of Phonation (With cool sound files for examples):

Dovel, Jason, Exploring Trumpet Tone Color,

Agostini, E and Ambrogio, G. Sant, The Respiratory Muscles, Mechanics, and Neural Control, 1970.

Proutskova, Rhodes, Crawford, and Wiggins, "Breathy, Resonant, Pressed - Automatic Detection of Phonation Mode from Audio Recordings of Singing,"  Journal of New Music Research (2013)

 Steenstrup, Kristian, Teaching Brass (2nd revised edition), Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus, 2007.

 Sundberg, Johan, The Science of the Singing Voice, 1987.

Tuesday, January 26, 2021

A Short History of the Earliest Trumpet Books

Jean-Baptiste Arban (1825–1889) published his Grande méthode complète pour cornet à pistons et de saxhorn in Paris in 1864. This book remains one of the most important (and frequently used) trumpet books in the world -- but there are many books that came before it, most of which are often overlooked. This week's blog will explore 14 trumpet books that antedate Arban's method. When possible, external links are provided to the full text of the resource.

Excerpt from Magnus Thomsen's trumpet book from 1598

Magnus Thomsen: Music book for trumpet, 1598.
Henrich Lübeck: Music book for trumpet, 1598.

The earliest books of trumpet music are those by Henrich Lübeck and Magnus Thomsen. These are both dated to 1598. Described by Michael Gale in his Historic Brass Society Journal article (cited below) as "manuscript notebooks," these books contain pedagogical exercises as well as notated trumpet ensemble music that would have been normally improvised. It's peculiar that these books remain somewhat unknown, as they are both scanned and available as free downloads at the Royal Library of Copenhagen website (external link). The existence of these two books has been known for some time, and Peter Downey published editions of the works of Lübeck and Thomsen in his 1983 doctoral dissertation (cited below).

Casare Bendinelli, Tutta L'arte Della Trombetta, 1614.

Casare Bendinelli (c. 1542–1617) was from Verona, Italy. He served as principal trumpet of the Viennese court from 1567–1580 and then played for court in Munich, Germany until his death. His book, Tutta L'arte Della Trombetta manifests the first example of clarino music for trumpet. This book was compiled in 1614 and  it is generally regarded as a collection of music from his time working at the Bavarian Court in Munich. His book notes the rules for trumpet ensemble improvisation and contains over 300 sonatas.

Replica of Bendinelli's trumpet by Anton Schnitzer (Photo Courtesy Jared Wallis)

A trumpet owned by Bendinelli survives to this day; it was designed by Anton Schnitzer in Nuremberg, and Bendenelli gave it to the Accademia Filarmonica of Verona in 1614, the same year he compiled his book.

Jared Wallis demonstrates his Schnitzer replica (Photo Courtesy Jared Wallis)

Title page to Fantini's trumpet method

Girolamo Fantini, Modo per Imparare a sonare di Tromba, 1638.

Girolamo Fantini (ca. 1600-1678) published Modo per imparare a sonare di tromba..., in 1638. The English translation of the full title is "Method for learning to play the trumpet in a warlike way as well as musically; With the organ, with a mute, with a harpsichord, and every other instrument." According to Igino Conforzi (in the HBSJ article cited below), five print copies and one manuscript survive.

This book is important for many reasons, including Fantini's use of unequal articulation syllables, such as te ghe and ta da, as well as his expansion of the instrument's range. The music in the book also includes some notes outside the harmonic series. Modern players who want to learn the valveless natural trumpet most certainly should explore this resource.

Henry Meredith's 1984 doctoral dissertation (external link) is a thorough study, translation, and edition of Fantini's book. 

Excerpt from Hyde's Preceptor

J. Hyde A New and Complete Preceptor for the Trumpet and Bugle Horn, 1795.

The first English trumpet method was written by John Hyde in 1795. The contents of this book were recently recorded by the University of Kentucky Baroque Trumpet Ensemble (available here on Itunes: external link)

Hyde's book contains solos for trumpet and bugle, as well as trumpet ensemble music for two, three, and four natural trumpets. It also includes  pedagogical instructions as well as repertoire for the English slide trumpet. 

University of Kentucky DMA student Clinton Linkmeyer is currently working on a modern edition of this book as part of his doctoral dissertation, which should be available in 2021. Currently, the manuscript is available for free online via the University of California (external link).

Johann Ernst Altenburg. Versuch einer Anleitung zur heroisch-musikalischen Trompeter- und Paukerkunst (An Essay on the Introduction to Heroic and Musical Trumpeters' and Kettledrummers' Art), 1795.

Johann Ernst Altenburg (1734–1801) is perhaps the final representative of the golden age of natural trumpet playing. While it was published in 1795, it is generally agreed that it was written around 25 years earlier. It is a must-have for any serious trumpet student. The book offers details of the trumpet guilds and fellowships, and provides information on systems of training. (Teachers were to take on only one student at a time, the student lived with the teacher and took several lessons per day during a two-year apprenticeship.) It provides a detailed account of the instruments, roles, and techniques in the trumpet's history. The full text of the book can be found online at this external link.

Coverpage to Dauverné's trumpet method

François Dauverné (1799–1874)
 Methode pour la trompette (1857)

François Georges Auguste Dauverné (1799–1874) was the first trumpet professor at the Paris Conservatory. His famous pupil, Jean-Baptiste Arban (1825–1889) was the first cornet professor. 

Natural trumpet quartet in Dauverné's method

Dauverné's book includes pedagogical material for the valvless natural trumpet as well as music for the early valved trumpet. The full text of Dauverné's method is available at this external link.

19th Century Books

Excerpt from Buhl's method

Buhl, David, 
Théorie ou tablature de la trompette à pistons

In both its title and contents, Buhl's trumpet method clearly represents the transition from natural trumpets to valved trumpets, though Buhl himself did write for valveless trumpets as well. In fact, David Buhl is perhaps best known as the composer of Salut aux étendards, a cavalry trumpet's call that was later adapted by John Williams to become the modern Olympic Fanfare theme -- recorded here by the University of Kentucky Baroque Trumpet Ensemble (external link).

Fingering chart for three-valve trumpet in Buhl's method

Buhl's method includes a standard fingering chart for a three-valve piston trumpet that closely matches modern fingering charts in use today. The full text of Buhl's method is available at at this external link.

Cacciamani, Raniero, Instruction method for the valve trumpet, 1853.

Another 19th century book is Raniero Cacciamani's Instruction method for the valve trumpet. I am personally the least familiar with this book, and was unable to obtain a complete copy for this blog post, but according to Friedrich Anzenberger's 1993 Historic Brass Society Journal article (external link) the book is divided into three sections: a section for natural trumpet, a section confined to C major, and a section that utilizes the full chromaticism of the valved trumpet. Exercises from Cacciamani's book are included in Ed Tarr's The Art of Baroque Trumpet Playing (Volume One).

Concert Announcement for the World Premiere of the Haydn Trumpet Concerto

Keyed Trumpet Method Books

It is generally well known that Anton Weidinger performed on a Classical keyed trumpet and that both the Haydn and Hummel trumpet concertos were written for him and this instrument. However, it seems that in many circles it is believed that the keyed trumpet's usage was limited to Mr. Weidinger and these two pieces. This is not true. At least five method books were published that included pedagogical material for the keyed trumpet. These include:

Araldi, Giuseppe. Metodo per Tromba. (Method for trumpet), 1835.
Asioli, Bonifazio. Transunto del Principj Elemntari di Musica...E Breve Metodo per Tromba con Chiavi. (A survey of the rudiments of music... and a short method for keyed trumpet), 1825.
Nemetz, Andreas. Allgemeine Trompeten-Schule. (General trumpet method), 1828.
Roy and Muller. R. Cocks and Co.'s Series of Modern Tutors for Wind Instruments with New and Complete Scales...Tutor for the Keyed and Valve Trumpet, with Airs and Duets., ca. 1839
Roy, Eugène. Mèthod de Trompette sans Clefs and avec Clefs (Method for the trumpet with and without keys), 1824.

Final Thoughts

Whether you are interested in historically informed performance practice, or just have a general interest in the history of trumpet pedagogy, these are important and accessible resources. I hope you have found this short history of our instrument's earliest written resources helpful, and encourage you to follow the external links to explore these books in greater detail.

Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).

Sources/For Further Reading:

Friedrich Anzenberger, Method Books for Natural Trumpet in the 19th Century: An Annotated Bibliography, 1993 Historic Brass Society Journal (external link

Igino Conforzi, "Monarch of the Trumpet": New Light On His Works (Historic Brass Society Journalexternal link

Peter Downey, The Trumpet and its Role in the Music of the Renaissance and Early Baroque, 3 vols. (Ph.D. diss. The Queen's University of Belfast, 1983)

Michael Gale, "Remnants of Some Late Sixteenth-Century Trumpet Ensemble Music (Historic Brass Society Journal: external link

Henry Meredith, Girolamo Fantini's Trumpet Method: A Practical Edition, 1984.  (external link)

Edward Tarr, The Art of Baroque Trumpet Playing, Schott Publications, 1999.

John Wallace, The Trumpet (external link

Thursday, September 10, 2020

Practice Room Alternatives

“Obstacles are those frightful things you see when you take your eyes off your goal.” Henry Ford

Social distancing has meant the closure of numerous schools and buildings, and many musicians now find themselves unable to access their usual practice space. In particular, students are having difficulty finding a place to practice, as even schools that are reopening for in-person classes are imposing significant restrictions on practice room and classroom usage.

Below are my top ten practice room alternatives. I wrote this with brass players in mind, but many of these are good options for other musicians as well.

10. Practice mute

It seems the most common practice room alternative is the practice mute. Many different types of practice mutes are available, and they certainly will soften the sound of a brass instrument. However, this is my least favorite option— for a brass player, playing in a practice mute is very unlike playing the instrument itself. The resistance and intonation of a practice mute are often problematic.

Once in a lesson with Barbara Butler, I blamed my poor playing on having been on the road and mostly using a practice mute in the preceding weeks, to which she responded, “Get rid of it, practice mutes are career killers.”

While practice mute practice may be a good option for use on an occasional basis, most musicians will want to find a better long-term solution.

9. Practice igloo

A great practice room alternative is the practice igloo, also known as the practice cave. Phil Smith and Joe Alessi made this humorous YouTube video about how they use a practice igloo to practice when they were on the road with the New York Philharmonic. 

Essentially, take a bunch of pillows and blankets, stack them up on a bed like an igloo, and then play your instrument into this igloo. It works surprisingly well and quiets the sound without creating the unnatural resistance of a practice mute.

8. Practice dresser

The practice dresser is my variation of the practice igloo. When I'm traveling and staying in hotels, if the room has a chest of drawers / dresser for clothing, I like to fill it with clothing, blankets, pillows, etc., and then extend the dresser drawer just slightly. I then place the rim of the bell (only) into the dresser, rest it gently at the front of the drawer, and play freely. (Many dressers have little cutouts, meant for your hand to pull, that are the perfect size to rest a trumpet bell.)  Coupled with the hotel room's rolling office chair, this makes for a comfortable setup for a good routine where you can play freely without the resistance of a mute, and without disturbing your neighbors.

7. Practice bucket

There are several varieties of the practice bucket, but my favorite is the one described in a recent social media post by Matt Anklan, trumpet professor at Ohio’s Miami University. This is an easy DIY project and supplies needed included a Home Depot bucket, twin mattress pad, 99¢ clamp from Home Depot, and one zip tie. Another version of a DIY practice bucket can be found here.

Matt Anklan demonstrates his DIY practice bucket

6. Open outdoor area

Parks, university green spaces, empty parking lots can all make for good practice areas. My institution, the University of Kentucky, recently set up several tents for outdoor student practice.

UK trumpet student Madison Barton practicing in an outdoor practice tent

5. Parking Garage

If you live in a metropolitan area there are probably many parking garages all over your city.  It’s not difficult to tuck into a corner with a music stand and practice.

4. Alternative spaces in an apartment complex

Perhaps your apartment complex has a basement, clubhouse, rooftop, laundry area, or other space where you can freely practice without disturbing your neighbors. If not, try to find a closet on an exterior wall (not shared with a neighbor) and play into a thick array of clothing.

3. Whisper Room

I recently was sent literature on the Whisper Room, a SoundIsolation Enclosure. These come in various sizes and can be a way to have a regular practice room in your apartment. 

2. Empty church

Churches have a lot of spaces that are great for musicians. Sanctuaries, classrooms, offices, etc. A large reverberate sanctuary is one of the best places to practice because you feel better about your playing (reverb) and are practicing in a space closer to an actual performance situation.

1. Live where you can practice freely

In my opinion, the best alternative to a practice room is to seek a place to live where you can practice. Whether this is a house or an apartment with thick walls (or understanding neighbors), it really is ideal if you can practice in the same building that you eat and sleep. Not only does this cut down on the hassle of the travel, scheduling, and availability associated with external practice spaces, but you have the added benefit of being able to take more breaks and practice whenever you want.  Ultimately, my advice to musicians is to remember their need for a time and space to practice when they seek a new place to live.


Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).


Wednesday, April 08, 2020

School as Leisure

Etymology is the study of the origin of words and their meanings. In studying the etymology of the English word "school," we find two origins: the Greek word skohle, meaning "spare time, leisure, rest" and the Latin word schola, meaning "leisure for learning."

In the Middle Ages, most individuals had to work as soon as they were old enough. In order for families to survive, most children needed to contribute to the family income soon after adolescence. Only a minority of the population (usually sons from rich families) had the opportunity to use their leisure time to go to "school."

In the 21st century, school can seem anything but leisure, especially for the university student. Demanding course loads, part-time jobs, employment uncertainty, rising tuition costs, and exploding student loans all seem to put stress upon a young person's decision to go to school. These days, school and leisure may seem like opposites.

In an unprecedented way, COVID-19 and social distancing are imposing a new type of conflict between school and leisure. As teachers and students alike now find ourselves isolated at home for weeks and months, we perhaps have much more unscheduled leisure time than we expect -- yet, we're also expected to keep up our scholastic obligations. Students are moving out of their dorms and home for the summer; normally this would indicate months of leisure and rest, but at this juncture these students are still expected to finish all of their academic commitments. How do we reconcile school and leisure?

A Posture of Leisure

To be clear, I am not advocating lower standards or a lack of commitment to academics and artistry. Quite the opposite; I'm advocating a posture of leisure to our efforts -- a posture that brings us joy; a posture that inspires us to pursue our studies with passion and excellence.

In Kelly Rossum's book Trumpet Roshi, he writes:

Roshi was speaking to his students during sosan,
"The essence of play is joy.
If you do not find joy in playing,

you may be performing.
This is for you to decide."

Perhaps our COVID-19 social distancing may force us to rethink how school and leisure time might co-exist. To be sure, there will be many disappointments, challenges, and frustrations as we move classes online. But maybe this is an opportunity for us --  not only to re-tweak our syllabi to finish out the school year, but a bigger opportunity for students and teachers alike to envision a new and better path forward.

Ways for Instructors to Make School Feel More Like Leisure

Since many universities around the country have announced their COVID-19  response as online-only instruction, professors are dramatically reshaping their courses. As we tweak our syllabi and course requirements, let this be an opportunity for us to realize where we can do it better. Those requirements we nix due to online limitations can perhaps be nixed altogether. Replace assignments that simply require students to regurgitate with ones that challenge them to create; inspire students to mesmerize audiences of the future rather than memorize facts from the past. And our concern for the student's health, and a desire to teach them in the context of their overall wellness -- let's keep doing that long after COVID-19 becomes a thing of the past.

Ways for Students to Make School Feel More Like Leisure

Stay on schedule. One of the pieces of advice I see frequently shared on social media with regard to surviving isolation at home is the importance of setting an alarm and maintaining a regular daily schedule. There are many reasons for this, including the promotion of positive mental health.

Many students are reluctant to make a regular schedule because they are afraid it will limit their free (leisure) time. But the opposite is true. By making a regular schedule and sticking to it, you take ownership of your time, and will end up with more control and more leisure time. (This is much like gaining control of your finances by making a budget.) And what's more, you'll enjoy your leisure time more, when you don't have the guilt hanging over your head of "I should be ______ right now instead...."

Know that your applied teacher can help make playing your instrument physically easier for you. One of the reasons being a music major may not feel leisurely is the physical challenge of learning a musical instrument. While it can be fun, playing an instrument (or singing) can at times feel like work. Your applied teacher has the training to make this easier for you. Sometimes, the changes your teacher suggests may initially feel uncomfortable; in fact, sometimes new approaches may seem much harder at first. Trust your teachers. Know that they want to make it easier for you. When playing your instrument is easier, it will feel less like work, and more like leisure.

Remember your star is just beginning its ascent. Recently, when John Wittmann of the Yamaha Corporation visited the University of Kentucky, he told our students, “Don’t compare your chapter 2 to someone else’s chapter 15.” It’s easy to get discouraged when we compare ourselves to those whose star has perhaps ascended higher than ours. Remember that you did not come to school to show how much you know. You came to school to learn.  Relax, know that time is on your side, and eventually you will get to your chapter 15 – and beyond.

Find ways to turn boring or frustrating experiences into positive, productive opportunities. For example, if you feel you’re in an ensemble where you’re not playing very much or not being challenged, find ways to be engaged. It’s often easy to complain about ensemble experiences. Rather than join in the complaining, find ways to be positive and productive. For me, I like to try to transcribe in my head what other instruments are playing. Or maybe I’ll work on my posture (Alexander Technique). Or maybe I’ll try to learn from the conductor’s rehearsal or stick technique. Rather than be bored, consider this leisure learning; Enjoy your ability to explore and learn in these new ways, on your own terms, and at your own pace.

Have an attitude of gratitude. Lastly, be grateful. Be positive. Show appreciation to your teachers. Show respect to your colleagues. Relish the opportunity to take this time in your life – this leisure time – and learn. Be grateful for the opportunity to pursue your passion, and know that the challenges and bumps along the way will make you stronger.

Final Thoughts

Many of us in the arts chose to go to school to turn our avocation into our vocation. Unfortunately, in some cases, school turns that leisurely avocation into an onerous obligation. Yes, absolutely, students need to be held to high standards, and universities should offer a robust and diverse curriculum; nevertheless, there may be some areas where we have been doing it wrong. As we navigate this new world of social distancing and online courses, let us not merely seek to fill our leisure time with the programs of school, but also to fill our schooling with a posture of leisure.

Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

Unusual and Amusing Trumpet History

The trumpet has a long and interesting history that dates from ancient times. With all of the problems in the world associated with COVID-19, I thought it was appropriate to write a post that offers some lighter fare. Be well, wash your hands -- and enjoy these peculiar and even humorous stories from our instrument's history. 

Death by Trumpeting
Krakow, Poland
Perhaps one of the earliest pieces of preserved music in the world is the Krakow Trumpet Signal, also known as St. Mary's Dawn or Hejnał mariacki. According to tradition, this signal dates back to the Middle Ages, during a time when tower trumpeters served an important role as city watchmen.  The Krakow Trumpet Signal was the warning played by the city's tower trumpeter to alarm the city's residents whenever there was danger, such as a fire or an invasion by enemy forces. The story goes that in 1241, during the Mongol invasion of Poland, a trumpeter sounded the alarm to warn the city residents of incoming invaders. As he played the signal, a Tartan archer shot the trumpeter through the throat,  causing the fanfare to come to an abrupt ending. A formal ceremony commemorates this event every day in Krakow and is even broadcast on Polish radio. (External Link: Krakow Signal With Narration)

No Communion
In the Middle Ages, most trumpet players, especially those who did not have formal employment with a court or municipality, lived on the fringes of society and had virtually no rights at all. The Roman Catholic church even denied these trumpet players Holy Communion!

Thousands, Then None
The trumpet had many important roles in both the Old and New Testaments. According to the Jewish historian Josephus, King Solomon had 20,000 trumpets made for use in the  Jerusalem temple. In spite of this, the trumpet was not used as a musical instrument for most of the history of the Christian church. The first documented evidence of trumpet playing in church services is not until the 15th century with the invention of the slide trumpet.

Bendinelli's Humorous Performance Instructions
One of the earliest examples of a composer providing written performance instructions to trumpet players is the note Cesare Bendinelli wrote for the trumpet ensemble that was playing at the 1584 wedding of Ludwig, Count of Leuchtenberg. Bendinelli writes:
"The player of the clarino part is required to hold a large glass of wine in his hand, and every time he stops playing, he has to drink a little, until the sonata is over; then the other trumpeters also drink, to imitate the text of the song."

Just Make Something Up
While Monteverdi's opera L'Orfeo (1607) is usually regarded as the first notated music for trumpet in a concert (or dramatic) setting, both municipal and court records show that trumpet players were hired as professional musicians long before composers explicitly wrote for them. It's likely these early trumpet players simply improvised their own part! (In his book, Music and History of the Baroque Trumpet Before 1721, Don Smithers suggests that composers began to write out specific parts for trumpet players because they were not satisfied with their improvisations.)

As Sweet as an Oboe?

There is much documentation of high praise for the Baroque English trumpet player John Shore. Somewhat humorously, one of the reviews shows that Shore sounded almost as good as an oboe.  The 18th century historian Sir John Hawkins wrote, "by [Shore's] great ingenuity and application had extended the power of that noble instrument... beyond the reach of imagination, for he produced from it a tone as sweet as that of a hautboy (oboe)."

Another Death By Trumpeting?
The first performance of J.S. Bach's challenging Preise dein Glücke, gesegnetes Sachsen BWV 215 was October 5, 1734. Its extremely demanding first trumpet part calls for high e''' on D trumpet. The principal trumpet for this performance, Gottfried Reiche, collapsed on his walk home and died the next day.

Mozart's Aversion to the Trumpet
According to Mozart family friend Johann Schnachtner, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart hated the trumpet. Schnachtner writes,  "Merely to hold a trumpet in front of [Mozart] was like aiming a pistol at his heart...Papa wanted me to cure him of this childish fear and once told me to blow [the trumpet] at him despite his reluctance, but my God? I should have not been persuaded to do it; Wolfgang scarcely heard the blaring sound when he grew pale and began to collapse, and if I had continued he would surely have suffered a convulsion." (Source: Otto Deutsch, Mozart, a Documentary Biography. For more on this subject, see Elisa Koehler's October 2012 ITG Journal Article, "Did Mozart Hate The Trumpet?")

Clarke's Infamous Letter
In 1921, the virtuoso cornet player Herbert L. Clarke wrote a letter to Elden Benge to discourage him from switching from cornet to trumpet. He stated that the trumpet is "only a foreign fad for the time present." He also claimed "One cannot play a decent song even, properly, on it." In the letter Clarke also becried jazz as "the nearest Hell, or the Devil, in music."

Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).

Monday, March 02, 2020

A History of Trumpet at the University of Kentucky

The University of Kentucky (UK) School of Music was founded in 1919 and recently celebrated its 100th anniversary. In the 100 years of the School of Music, many fine trumpeters have taught at UK. This week’s blog will trace this lineage of teachers and offer a brief snapshot of their background and contributions.

Bernie Fitzgerald
Bernard Fitzgerald (1912-2005) 
Professor at UK in the 1950s
"Bernie" Fitzgerald taught at the University of Kentucky in the mid 20th century.  He also held positions at the University of Idaho, the University of Texas at Austin, the Jordan College of Music, and the Emporia State Teachers College. Today, he is remembered mostly as a composer and arranger, and contributed more than 100 compositions and arrangements to the trumpet repertoire. 
Bernie Fitzgerald guest conducting the UK Trumpet Ensemble, performing his Trumpet Guild Fanfare  at the 1982 ITG Conference (L to R: Fred Ashby, Brad Goode, David Poer, Steve Wade, Doug Martin, Dave Welch, LaShelle Montfort, Kelly Harding, Andy Mill, Bernie Walker, Forrest Johnson, and Fitzgerald) Photo Credit: Vince DiMartino

According to Harry Clarke, Emeritus Professor at the University of Kentucky, Fitzgerald was originally hired as the band conductor, taught in the music education area, and also for a time was interim department chair. Clarke described Fitzgerald as a “great friend and golf partner.” 
UK professor emeritus Bernie Fitzgerald (left) chats with Vince DiMartino (right) following DiMartino's concert of Fitzgerald's music at Fitzgerald's retirement center (Photo Credit: Vince DiMartino)

Jack Hyatt
Jack Hyatt 
Professor at UK in the 1960s
Hyatt was the trumpet professor at UK in the 1960s. In 1968 he released the album Trumpet Solos with pianist Ruby Hyatt. He later moved to New York City and became a professor at Lehman College, a division of the City College of New York.
Hyatt album Trumpet Solos

Walter Blanton

Walter Blanton (1944–2017)
Professor at UK 1969
Walter Blanton was from Kent, Washington. He earned degrees from Western Washington State College and Indiana University. He moved to Las Vegas and enjoyed a vibrant performance career there. He played in the major casinos for numerous top entertainers throughout his 52-year career including Tony Bennett, Frank Sinatra Sr. and Jr., Henry Mancini, Johnny Mathis and James Brown. He toured with the Woody Herman Band, the Broadway musical "Hair," the Las Vegas/New World Brass Quintet and played principal trumpet for the Las Vegas Philharmonic and Nevada Symphony Orchestras. Walt taught at Indiana University, the University of Kentucky, UNLV, Nevada School of the Arts and the College of Southern Nevada, retiring in 2012 after 44 years of teaching. 

Blanton came to UK from his career in Las Vegas in 1969, and after a stint as UK’s trumpet professor, returned to Las Vegas to resume his previous career there. 

Vincent DiMartino

Vincent DiMartino  
Professor at UK 1972–1993
As evidence of his prodigious talent, Vince 
DiMartino was hired as UK’s trumpet professor in 1972 at the age of 23 with only a bachelor’s degree. He has established himself as one of the world’s greatest trumpet players 

Without a doubt, the legacy of the UK trumpet program owes a huge debt to this wonderful man. He truly catapulted the UK trumpet studio to international acclaim, with legions of successful alumni now teaching and performing all over the worldDiMartino also served two terms as President of the International Trumpet Guild (ITG) and hosted the ITG Conference at the University of Kentucky in 1982.  
Vince DiMartino (Left) in the UK Faculty Brass Quintet (1979)
Vince DiMartino has been the lead and solo trumpet in the Lionel Hampton Band, the Chuck Mangione Band, the Clark Terry Band and The Eastman Arranger’s Holiday Orchestra. He has also performed with some of this country’s finest college jazz ensembles.  

Mr. DiMartino has been soloist with many symphony orchestra including Cincinnati, Buffalo, Sante Fe, North Carolina, Orlando, Baton Rouge and Rochester, New York. He also appeared as guest soloist with the Boston Pops on their Summer Tour in 1999 and for a national television broadcast of the same. He has also been a soloist with the Army Blues Jazz Band, The Army Brass Band, The U.S. Air Force Band of Flight, and The United States Marine Band. Mr. DiMartino is the first civilian to perform with this ensemble.  
Vince DiMartino with guest artist Clark Terry in 1973 at the University of Kentucky. Terry was DiMartino's first guest artist during his tenure at UK. (Photo Credit: Vince DiMartino)

Mr. DiMartino is also prominently featured on some of the Cincinnati Pops Orchestra’s recordings including Mancini’s Greatest Hits, Bond and Beyond, Big Hit Parade, and Hollywood’s Greatest Hits. He recorded Mel Torme’s Christmas Album as lead trumpet. Mr. DiMartino also has completed a recording project on Summit Records with jazz artists Allen Vizzutti and Bobby Shew and The Summit Brass called Trumpet Summit. 

DiMartino was the 2004 CASE Professor of The Year for the state of Kentucky. This award is given nationally each year to one person in each state in The United States. He is the recipient of The Governor’s Lifetime Achievement Award for 20082009 for the state of Kentucky. 

Professor DiMartino taught at the University of Kentucky from 1972–1993. At that time, he became an artist-in-residence at Centre College in Danville, Kentucky. There he taught trumpet, jazz history, and coached brass and jazz ensembles as a distinguished Matton Professor of Music. He retired from Centre in 2012. He returned to the University of Kentucky as interim professor of trumpet for the 2012–2013 school year. 

Now retired from full-time teachingVince DiMartino continues to perform internationally. He and UK’s Miles Osland continue to co-direct The DiMartino-Osland Jazz Orchestra (DOJO) and have recorded two CDs on Seabreeze records, Quotient and Off the Charts.  He also performs as a founding member of the nationally touring Quintasonic Brass. He is a Pickett Brass/Blackburn artist.

Bob Thompson
Bob Thompson 
Professor at UK 1993–1994
Bob Thompson taught at the University of Kentucky during the 1993–1994 academic year. He holds degrees from the Eastman School of Music and University of South Florida.  He was a member of the critically acclaimed Rhythm and Brass.

After his one-year position at UK, he moved to Europe to pursue a performance career. He later became involved in the music publishing business and in 1993 he was appointed Vice President of G. Schirmer, Inc./AMP, based in G. Schirmer’s New York headquarters.  At the time of this writing, Thompson is now President of Schirmer.

Terry Everson

Terry Everson
Professor at UK 1994–1998
Terry Everson taught trumpet at UK from 1994–1998. He hosted the International Trumpet Guild Conference at UK in 1998. During this time he also served as the School of Music's Director of Undergraduate Studies.
UK Trumpet Ensemble with Terry Everson at the 1998 ITG Conference
Hailed by the Boston Globe for his “dazzling, clarion brightness with elegant edges,” and in the Boston Musical Intelligencer for “virtuosity and musicality that was simply stunning,” trumpeter Terry Everson is an internationally renowned soloist, educator, composer/arranger, conductor, and church musician. He first gained international attention in 1988, winning (on consecutive days) both the Baroque/Classical and 20th Century categories of the inaugural Ellsworth Smith International Trumpet Competition, with further success as First Prize laureate of the 1990 Louise D. McMahon International Music Competition. Mr. Everson has premiered major works by composers Richard Cornell, John Davison, Stanley Friedman, Jan Krzywicki, Elena Roussanova-Lucas, and Gary Ziek. His collaboration with pianist Susan Nowicki has produced two complete recordings of numerous notable modern works, as well as single entries on two discs devoted to the works of Davison and Krzywicki; he has also recorded as soloist with the New England Brass Band, the Lexington Brass Band and the Eastern Wind Symphony. 
UK Faculty Brass in 1998: (L-to-R: Everson, Skip Gray, David Elliott, Dale Warren & Tim Altman)
Mr. Everson has been an active church musician for more than two decades; he was Minister of Music at True Light Community Ministries in inner-city Philadelphia, and held the same position at Family Worship Center in Lexington. From 2003 to 2005 he was Worship Pastor at Metro Church in Marlborough, MA; he and his wife, Lori, are currently elders and members of the Worship Team.

As composer, Mr. Everson has filled commissions from Wizards! double reed ensemble, the Texas Tech Trombone Choir, the Lutheran Music Program (brass quintet), and Messiah College and the Philadelphia College of Bible (trumpet ensembles). His setting of W. L. Thompson’s There’s a Great Day Coming has been recorded by Philip Smith (former Principal Trumpet, New York Philharmonic) on the Cala label’s New York Legends series. More recently, the BU Trumpet Ensemble’s performance of his arrangement of the Finale of Felix Mendelssohn’s Fourth Symphony at the 2007 ITG Conference received an enthusiastic standing ovation.
Terry Everson coaches UK trumpet student Zach Robinson during Everson's return to Lexington as a guest artist in 2016
Mr. Everson is currently the trumpet professor at Boston University and a member of the Board of Directors for the National Trumpet Competition. 

Rolf Holly  (b. 1965) 
Professor at UK 1998–2001
Rolf Holly studied trumpet at the Julliard School and was a founding member of the Meridian Arts Ensemble. He came to UK in 1998 as a one-year professor and subsequently won the national search for the full time position in 1999 and taught at UK until 2001. 

Scott Heersche

Scott Heersche (b. 1971)
Interim Professor at UK 2001
After Rolf Holly’s departure, a doctoral student, Scott Heersche, took over the reins of the UK trumpet studio for the 2001–2002 academic year as interim instructor of trumpetA Lexington native, Heersche previous earned a bachelor’s degree from UK and a master’s degree from Indiana University. 

At present, Heersche is Pastor of Worship for Lexington’s Centenary Methodist Church as well as the trumpet instructor for Transylvania University. He is a highly visible and active leader of central Kentucky’s musical community. 

Mark Clodfelter

Mark Clodfelter (b. 1966) 
Professor at UK 2002–2012
Mark Clodfelter taught trumpet at the University of Kentucky from 2002–2012. He established new events such as UK TrumpetFest and led the UK trumpet ensemble in highly successful performances at the National Trumpet Competition and International Trumpet Guild Conferences. During his time at UK, he was Co-Conductor of the Bluegrass Area Jazz Ambassadors and the Central Kentucky Youth Jazz Orchestra.  He organized UK trumpet trips to Greece and Italy and also participated in the UK Faculty Brass Quintet's 2006 tour of Russia. His many successful UK trumpet students continue to win important professional placements as performers and educators throughout the country.
Mark Clodfelter with the UK Faculty Brass in Russia (2006)
Clodfelter can be heard as Principal Trumpet of the Asheville Symphony Orchestra, the Trade Winds (Tamp Fl.) and with the Palladium Brass. At home in a great array of styles, his commercial affiliations have  included split lead with the DiMartino/Osland Jazz Orchestra and the Kentucky Jazz Repertory Orchestra. He is member of Covalence, a chamber duo, with Rebecca Wilt, his wife and renowned collaborative pianist. Additionally, he spends summers as a member of the faculty of the InterHarmony International Music Festival in Arcidosso, Italy.
Clodfelter with UK students in Greece (2007)
Coldfelter entered collegiate teaching as Instructor of Trumpet and Director of Jazz Band at Mars Hill College. He has served on the faculty of the prestigious Eastern Music Festival and has taught the Carolina Crown Drum and Bugle Corps. He was a founding member of the Giannini Brass and has held positions with the Greensboro Symphony, Orchestra Kentucky, the North Charleston Pops, the Western Piedmont Symphony, the Salisbury Symphony, the Greenville (SC) Symphony and the Eastern Philharmonic Orchestra. 

Clodfelter left UK in 2012 to become Professor of Trumpet at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. In 2019, he became Professor of Trumpet at the University of Delaware. 

Vince DiMartino, Chase Hawkins, Doc Severinsen, and Rui Li, in the UK trumpet studio during DiMartino's interim appointment for the 2012-13 school year

Vince DiMartino returns 
Interim Professor at UK 2012–2013
Vince DiMartino returned to UK for the 2012–2013 academic year while the School of Music conducted a national search for Clodfelter’s replacement. Teaching assistants Rui Li and Chase Hawkins also had a large role in leading the studio during that time.

Jason Dovel

Jason Dovel 
Professor at UK 2013–Present
The current trumpet professor at the University of Kentucky is Jason Dovel.  Dovel came to UK in 2013. Since his arrival, he has established the UK Summer Trumpet Institute, organized UK Education Abroad (study abroad) programs to Greece, Australia, and Poland, initiated student recording projects, and developed an early music program, including the UK Baroque Trumpet Ensemble, UK Early Music Collective, and two Certificate programs in Baroque Trumpet. 

Dovel has led UK trumpet ensembles on three compact disc recording projects, including Competition Pieces for Trumpet Ensemble (2015), Music for Natural Trumpets (2017) and Andromeda: New Music for Trumpet Ensembles (2019). Dovel hosted the National Trumpet Competition at the University of Kentucky in 2019. He currently serves on the Board of Directors for both the International Trumpet Guild and Historic Brass Society. 

(Jason Dovel is also author of this blog, and for more information, you can visit his website, )

UK Trumpet Ensemble Compact Disc: Andromeda: New Music For Trumpet Ensembles (2019)
UK Baroque Trumpet Ensemble CD: Music for Natural Trumpets (2017)

UK Trumpet Ensemble Compact Disc: Competition Pieces for Trumpet Ensemble (2015)

Four living University of Kentucky trumpet professors converge in Lexington for the 2019 National Trumpet Competition. L-to-R: Terry Everson (1994-1998), Jason Dovel (2013-Present), Vincent DiMartino (1972-1993 and 2012-2013), and Mark Clodfelter (2002-2012).

University of Kentucky Trumpet Alumni 

While this article primarily focused on the UK faculty, any story about the UK trumpet studio would be incomplete without mention of the numerous UK students who can literally be found all over the world. Below is a partial listing of names that have been sent to me during my research.  Errors and omissions from this list are not intentional, and I welcome any corrections or additions to be sent via email to 

Dovel-Era Students

Jeff Barrington (DMA ’19) - instructor of trumpet at Campbellsville University 
Marisa Youngs (DMA ’18) - instructor of trumpet at Winthrop University
Steven Siegel (DMA ’17) - assistant professor of music at Western Colorado University 
Stacy Simpson (DMA '16) - instructor of trumpet at Bellarmine University
Michael Black (DMA '16) - assistant professor of music at Franklin College
Band Directors: 
Tyran Ellis (BMME ’19) - Director of Bands at Lewis County High School 
Shelby Napier (BMME, ‘18) - band director at Royal Spring Middle School in Georgetown, KY (2018) 
DiaShamar Marshall (BMME 2017)  band director at Lynhurst 7th/8th Center in Indianapolis, Indiana 
Conner Kinmon (BMME 2017) - Director of Bands at Henderson County High School in  
Henderson, KY
Sean Piatt (BMME, 2016) – band director at West Jessamine County High School 
Michael Cotten (BMME, 2016) - Director of Bands at Hector High School in Russelville, Arkansas. Previously band director La Salle Catholic School in Cincinnati
Katie Safa (BMME 2017) -Director of Bands at Barker Middle School in Michigan City, Indiana  (Fall 2017) 

Performing Positions: 
Sabrina Musick (BMME 2016)- trumpeter with the U.S. Marine Band in San Diego, California.
Ray Li (DMA 2015), performs full-time with the National Centre for Performing Arts Orchestra in  Beijing, China
Phillip Chase Hawkins (MM 2014) Principal Trumpet of the Knoxville Symphony Orchestra.  (Also earned a DMA at CCM)
Stacy Simpson, Louisville Orchestra

Arts Admin/Business Positions:
Matthew McMahon, Artist Operations Coordinator, St. Louis Symphony Orchestra
Joel Crawford, Recording Engineer for the University of Cincinnati and owner, Joel Crawford Recording
Taylor Gustad, Pickett Brass
Franki Arroyo, Production Technician, WTVQ-DT ABC TV station
Ally VerSteegh, Singletary Center for the Arts

Graduate School Placement:
Will Lovan (BM 2019) now pursuing his master’s degree in performance at UCLA with Jens Lindemann 
Coleman Scott (BMME 2019) now pursuing his master’s degree in performance at University of Colorado – Boulder with Ryan Gardner 
Jared Wallis (BM 2015) is currently the trumpet TA at the Eastman School of Music in Rochester, NY. He did his BM at UK, his MM at Eastman, and is now pursuing a DMA at Eastman 
Matthew Coile (BA 2019) is now pursing a PhD at Northwestern University
Rhiannon Montgomery (BA 2019) is now pursuing doctoral study at the University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy
Zach Robinson (BMME 2018) now pursues a MM in music therapy at the University of Kentucky
Caden Holmes (BM 2017) won Trumpet Teaching Assistantship at Oklahoma State University in Fall 2017
Robert Elliott, who graduated from UK in 2015, won a Teaching Assistantship at the University of North  Carolina at Greensboro, where he is pursuing a Doctor of Musical Arts in trumpet performance. 
Zac Byrd (BA 2019) receive the first-ever fellowship to study the brewing industry through an individualized graduate program at the University of Kentucky (Fall 2019)

Pre-Dovel Era

Julian Kaplan, principal trumpet of the Kansas City Symphony

Rob Parton
Professor of Jazz Trumpet, University of North Texas

Eric Millard (BM, ‘13)
assistant professor of trumpet at the University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

T.J. Tesh
Assistant Professor of Trumpet, University of Southern Mississippi

Brad Goode
Associate Professor of Jazz Studies, University of Colorado
Richard Illman
Emeritus Professor of Trumpet, Michigan State University

Al Hood

Professor of Trumpet, University of Denver

Gordon Henderson
Director of Bands, Professor of Music, Vice Chair of the Music Department at UCLA

Todd Hastings
Professor of Trumpet at Pittsburg State University (KS), 1996-Present

Michael Miles
Director of the School of Music, University of Southern Mississippi

Richard Byrd
Professor of Music, Eastern Kentucky University

Paul Rathke
Fine Arts Chair, Grand Prairie Regional College in Canada (Alberta, Canada)

Jonathan Stites, band director for Fayette County Public Schools

Scott Heersche, pastor of worship, Centenary Methodist Church

David Hummel,

Director, Bluegrass Area Jazz Ambassadors
Instructor/Staff, Hurst Music

John Laverty
Director of Bands, Syracuse University

Daniel King
Professor at Capital University, Otterbein University
Instrumental Music Teacher, Columbus (OH) City Schools

David Welch
Teaching Assistantship at University of Northern Colorado 1985
Glenn Miller Orchestra, 1986-1987 (Lead Trumpet)
Employed at Disney Productions in Orlando 1989-1994
Music teacher in Jefferson Co. Schools

Paul Klontz
Trumpet in The U.S. Army "Pershing's Own," 1990-Present
Assistant Professor of Trumpet at University of Montana at Billings 1990-1991

Stuart Smith
Faculty, Mclean School of Music (McLean, Virginia)

Peter Bellino
Trumpet Professor, Schenectady Community College (New York)
Performances with the Buffalo Philharmonic, New York Repertory Orchestra, Air Force Band of the Midwest, Walt Disney World, Jeff Tyzik and Gap Mangione Big Bands, Aretha Franklin, Doc Severinsen, Jamey Aebersold, Oliver Lake and James Williams.

Bart Jones
3rd Trumpet, Tuscaloosa Symphony Orchestra
New Hampshire Music Festival
Formerly member of Alabama Symphony Orchestra, the Oklahoma Symphony Orchestra, Chamber Orchestra of Oklahoma City, Queen City Brass Quintet, Lexington Philharmonic Orchestra, and Lakeside Symphony

Eric Murine
Staff, Pickett Brass and Blackburn Trumpets

John Altman
Trumpet, U.S. Army Jazz Ambassadors

Timothy Altman
Professor of Trumpet, UNC-Pembroke

Steve Walters
Teaching Assistant at The Eastman School of Music 1982
ITG Jazz Finalist in 1979
Free Lance musician Orlando, Florida

Bernard Walker
Nashville freelance and studio performer
Teaching Fellowship at Arkansas State University 1985
Trumpet in The Memphis Symphony 1989-1990
Solo Eb Cornet in The Jack Daniel's Silver Cornet Band

Tim Stutler
Minister of Music in Glasgow, KY, 1992-Present
First Trumpet Disney All Collegiate Band 1989
First Trumpet at Busch Gardens at Williamsburg 1990-1991

Dwyane Hollenbach
Lecturer of Trumpet, University of Nevada at Reno
Principal trumpet, Reno Baroque Ensemble

Doug Martin
MM in Orchestral Conducting, University of Michigan
Currently a lawyer in Lexington, KY

Greg Sturgill
Full Tuition Scholarship for doctoral study at University of Cincinnati, 1991
U.K. Concerto Competition Winner, 1990
Aspen Award, 1990
Trumpet Instructor, Campbellsville College 1994
Eric Masters
Band Director, Paris High School

Tim Dailey
Director of Bands at 
 Milford Exempted Village School District

Tara Nogle
Public school music teacher

Lamar Boulet
Freelance trumpeter, Houston, TX
Disney All Collegiate Orchestra and Medley Band, 1989
Jazz Writing Scholarship at University of Maimi, 1991-1993
Universal Studios, Orlando, 1994-2012

Sam Miller
Lawyer in Texas

Jason Dovel is associate professor of trumpet at the University of Kentucky and a Yamaha Performing Artist. He is host of the annual UK Summer Trumpet Institute held every June in Lexington, KY (USA).